Teeth extraction is the removal of teeth from the bone that they are developed on. There are different reason why teeth can be extracted ranging from a decayed root that cannot be restored, an impacted tooth, diseases of the gum that work otherwise not heal if the tooth is not extracted to misaligned teeth that are in the way of other developing teeth. Teeth are held to the bone by the roots they develop, the periodontal ligament and the socket in which it rests inside the alveolar bone. Other possible reasons for teeth extraction are nerve injury.
Depending on the position of the tooth to be removed, there will be different instruments that would be used in making this happen. Operations involving the removal of a visible tooth are called simple extractions and the tools that are used are as well simple. Local anesthesia is widely used for simple teeth extractions. More complicated instruments would be used to remove impacted teeth that did not get to the surface of the gum. These would usually involve surgical operations since the teeth are not visible.
In simple teeth extractions, there are two instruments used to extract teeth and they are dental extraction forceps and the periosteal elevator. Each of these has a different purpose, and considering that the tooth is visible, it is only pressure that is applied to weaken the periodontal ligament and break it to let go of the tooth. The dental extraction forceps are used to hold the part of the tooth that is above the gum and apply this pressure while the elevator is used to digs out and pull the tooth from the socket it is developed in.
Teeth that did not erupt to above the gum tissue or got broke close to the alveolar bone, in extracting them, surgical operations would have to be applied and this kind of extraction is called the atraumatic extraction. If the teeth developed beyond the bone, then a blade or incisor would be required to cut the gum tissue to expose it, usually a drill would be used to break the tooth to pieces to ease the removal. The exact instrument that is used to drill is called an osteotome. Another instrument is the periotome which can be manual or machine operated and is used to remove the bone tissue.
Present day oral surgeons have instruments that are meant to have the least damage to the alveolar bone that the tooth is resting on in atraumatic teeth extractions. This is in the view that the patient might need an implant to fill up the space that has been left by the extracted tooth. Despite the instruments used in teeth extractions, oral surgeons need to take the utmost care not to injure the buccal bone and buccal plate.
Teeth extraction can be a costly venture and replacement with implants is even dearer. Considering most teeth extractions are done due to infections on the tooth, it is necessary to try to keep the surgeon away by brushing regularly and thoroughly.