Dental caries is caused by acidic metabolites of bacteria that usually live in the mouth where they nourish on carbohydrates. These prokaryotes especially Gram positive bacteria like Lactobacillus spp, Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces spp are available in oral biofilms which is the sticky, slimy coating in the mouth that is most visible before brushing away that awful breath in the morning. It is the bacteria and not sugar that usually causes cavities. The sugar is openly causing holes to develop in our teeth.
When plates builds up, the bacteria in the area of the Bio film adjacent the teeth surface starts to metabolize their food using anaerobic respiration which metabolize without the use of oxygen. Anaerobic metabolism of sugar result into the production of a very sour bacterial waste product. Consuming to much of processed, simple sugars also nourish oral bacteria which feeds on the cabs and then release this inside the metabolic waste products creating a high level of acidity on the surface of tooth. This acidic environment affects the mineral content of teeth.
The mouth is a complimentary home for a great variety of bacteria due to the existence of nutrients, epithelial debris and emissions. The oral bacteria include mainly streptococci, lactobacilli, staphylococci, corynebacteria and a great number of anaerobes more so bactericides. Thousands of various bacteria have been recognized in the oral cavity though this does not imply that they are not transients.
The oral cavity is at birth poised exclusively of the soft tissues of the lips, cheeks, tongue and palate which are reserved damp by the secretion of salivary gland. The oral cavity is germ-free but quickly becomes occupied from the environment more so from the mother in the initial feeding. Streptococcus salivarius is overriding and may make up 98% of the total oral flora until the emergence of the teeth 6 – 9 months in humans. The explosion of the teeth during the first year leads to migration by S. mutans and S. sanguis. These bacteria need a non desquamating plane in order to inhabit. They will endure as long as teeth remain. Other damages of streptococci stick strongly to the gums and cheeks but not the teeth. The creation of the gingival crevice area boosts the home for the diversity of anaerobic species established. The difficulty of the oral flora persists to augment with time, and bactericides and spirochetes colonize around puberty.
The oral bacteria can attack conciliation tissues in their hosts and produce disease outside the oral cavity. Oral bacteria attack deeper tissues they may cause abscesses of alveolar bone, lung, brain or the boundary. Such viruses generally have mixtures of bacteria with Bacteroides melaninogenicus often playing a leading role. If oral streptococci are launched into wounds created by dental handling or treatment, they may stick to heart valves and open sub acute bacterial endocarditic or other heart disease.